Beloit College > Chemistry > Nanochemistry

Chemistry plays a significant role in the emerging interdisciplinary fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The nanoscale refers to materials with dimensions on the scale of nanometers (a thousandth of a thousandth of a thousandth of a meter). Control of the material world at the scale of atoms and molecules can produce materials with fundamentally different properties and behavior and has been touted as the next technological revolution. Some questions we will consider include: What nanotechnology already exists? What makes nanomaterials special? How can they be prepared? What tools can be used to study such materials? Three class periods and one laboratory period per week. (U) Offered each spring.

Prerequisite: Some chemistry or physics background.


Spring 2017
Nanochemistry
Lisensky

 First Half

Jan 16 Class: Nanochemistry Basics
Jan 18 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Introduction (pages 1-10).
Discussion of Reading: Nanotech Promise, Peterson and Heller (2007).
Discussion of Reading: The invisible giant: a future enabled by nanotechnology (2013), or Section 1.2, European Commission Nanotechnology Report.
Discussion of Video: Water filter (2015) or youtube; and Filtering Drinking Water with Nanofibers (2016) or MIT Technology Review or youtube.
Lab: Electrochromic Prussian Blue Thin Films. See required lab notebook format.
Jan 20 Literature reports 1A
Choose a recent nano article from Nanoletters or ACS Nano. Summarize the paper in a short oral report, focusing primarily on a figure or two in the paper. Be sure to check for supplementary information (movies and the experimental section may be supplemental). By end of Wednesday email to claim a paper by including a link to the abstract. Papers that have been selected will be posted here. Your article grade will be based on whether you understand the selected material so select something you understand. Test questions in this course will be drawn from these student selected papers, so for the rest of the class this is a practice test.
1. Drake, "Diketopyrrolopyrrole–Triphenylamine Organic Nanoparticles as Multifunctional Reagents for Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Photodynamic/Photothermal Synergistic Tumor Therapy"
2. Everett, "Enhancing the Efficiency of Silicon-Based Solar Cells by the Piezo-Phototronic Effect"
3. Diego, "Ultrasensitive Phototriggered Local Anesthesia"
4. Haylee, "Yeast Microcapsule-Mediated Targeted Delivery of Diverse Nanoparticles for Imaging and Therapy via the Oral Route"
5. TianYi, "Lipid Nanoparticle Assisted mRNA Delivery for Potent Cancer Immunotherapy"
   
Jan 23 Class: Consumer Products
Lab notebook due (Prussian Blue)
Jan 25 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Concepts (Chapter 1).
Discussion of Reading: "Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic properties in nature," Materials Today, June 2015, 273-285.
Discussion of Video: Nasturtium Leaves (2013).
Discussion of Video: Lotus Effect (2011) or Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Discussion of Video: Non-Stick Nanocoating for Efficient Shipping (2011) or EU Research Media Center or youtube.
Lab: Octadecanethiol Monolayer on Silver (main experiment, do this first) and Microcontact Printing of Thiols (an extension of the main experiment but begin the PDMS preparation while the ethanol is evaporating in the main experiment.)
Movie: Background information (self assembly)
Jan 27 Literature reports 1B
1. Colby: "Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins"
2. Gabe: "Nanoparticles Coated with Neutrophil Membranes Can Effectively Treat Cancer Metastasis"
3. Emmeline: "Photocatalytic Color Switching of Transition Metal Hexacyanometalate Nanoparticles for High-Performance Light-Printable Rewritable Paper"
4. Heather: "Nanothermometry Measure of Muscle Efficiency"
5. Jacob: "Dual-Color Emissive Upconversion Nanocapsules for Differential Cancer Bioimaging In Vivo"
   
Jan 30 Class: Metal Nanoparticles
Lab notebook due (Silver Thiol)
Feb 1 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Gold (Chapter 3).
Skim: Crystal structures of gold nanoparticles (jmol).
Discussion of Video: Gold Nanoshells, Synthesis and Demonstration (2009) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Synthesis of Hollow Gold Nanospheres (2010) or youtube.
Skim: Science Translational Medicine, 27 October 2010 or NIH.
Skim: Rice team achieves a cancer milestone, Houston Chronicle, November 2012.
Skim: Solar Vapor Generation Enabled by Nanoparticles, ACS Nano, 7(1), 42-49 (2013).
Skim: Using Gold Nanoparticles to Kill Cancer, Physics Central, APS, April 2016 and movie.
Skim: Exploding nanobubbles can kill cancer cells, Science, AAAS, February 2016.
Discussion of Reading: Liposuction Goes Nano, C&E News, June 16, 2014, 32-33.
Skim: Gold Nanoparticle-assisted Selective Photothermolysis of Adipose Tissue, Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Global Open, December 2014, 2(12) e283.
Lab: Three Syntheses of Gold Nanoparticles and Sodium Borohydride Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Microwave-assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles. Write up the five syntheses with five different purpose, method, and actions and observations sections, each on a different page of your notebook. Since you will be doing five syntheses you can only spend 30 minutes on each. Write a combined conclusion section for the five experiments in which you answer the questions as you summarize and make comparisons.
Feb 3 Literature reports 1C
1. Garrison: "Continuous In-Flight Synthesis for On-Demand Delivery of Ligand-Free Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles"
2. Candy: "Improving T Cell Expansion with a Soft Touch"
3. Danni: "Direct Patterning of Colloidal Quantum-Dot Thin Films for Enhanced and Spectrally Selective Out-Coupling of Emission"
4. Yige: "Photoinduced Electron Transfer Process Visualized on Single Silver Nanoparticles"
   
Feb 6 Class: Nanowires
Feb 8 Discussion of Reading: “Nanoparticles Probe Biosystems,” Materials Today, Feb 2004, 36-43.
Discussion of Reading: “Directed assembly of nanowires,” Materials Today, May 2009, 34-43.
Discussion of Reading: “Programming Assembly," Inorg. Chem. 39, 2258 (2000).
Discussion of Video: Chad Mirkin (2009) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Gold Nanoparticles or NOVA "Making Stuff: Smaller" (2011) or youtube.
Lab: Synthesis of Nickel Nanowires. You should get as far as obtaining the XRD in the filter or at least leaving the labeled sample to be run. Watch at least one XRD sample so you will know how to use the instrument next week.
Feb 10 Literature reports 2A
1. Drake: "Guided CdSe Nanowires Parallelly Integrated into Fast Visible-Range Photodetectors"
2. Everett: "Direct Electrical Probing of Periodic Modulation of Zinc-Dopant Distributions in Planar Gallium Arsenide Nanowires"
3. Diego: "A Sugar-Derived Room-Temperature Sodium Sulfur Battery with Long Term Cycling Stability"
4. Haylee: "Engineering Localized Surface Plasmon Interactions in Gold by Silicon Nanowire for Enhanced Heating and Photocatalysis"
Lab notebook due (Gold and Silver Nanoparticles, five syntheses with one conclusion)
   
Feb 13 Class: Photonics
Feb 15 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Silica (Chapter 2).
Skim: “Nanostructure Polymers for Photonics,” Materials Today, April 2008, pages 48-56.
Discussion of Reading: “P-Ink and Elast-Ink,” Materials Today, July 2008, pages 44-51.
Discussion of Reading: “Smelling chemicals with a photonic nose,” SPIE (2011).
Skim: Opalux Products (2015).
Discussion of Reading: “Keeping Good Company with the Chameleon,” Materials Views (2015).
Skim: “Electronic Qubit Integrated Into Solid-State Switch,” or IEEE Spectrum, 12 Feb 2016.
Skim: “Plasmonics Make Electrochromic Polymers Fast Enough for Video,” or IEEE Spectrum, 28 April 2016.
Skim: “Brighter Displays Come From the Wings of a Butterfly,” or IEEE Spectrum, 3 June 2016.
Discussion of Reading: “Nanophotonic Crystals Separate Real Luxury Watches From the Fakes,” or IEEE Spectrum, 28 June 2016.
Skim: “Flexible and Colorful Electronic Paper Promises a New Look for E-books,” or IEEE Spectrum, 18 October 2016.
Discussion of Video: NatureTech: The Material World, (2006) BBC Part 4 or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Operating Opalux P-Ink Device with a Battery (2010) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Biomimicry, (2015) General Electric or youtube.
Discussion of Reading: "How to get that old-fashioned light bulb glow without wasting so much energy," Science, 2016.
Lab: Begin PMMA Nanosphere Synthesis first so you can be sure to get to the after the synthesis part today. You will work in one of four groups. Write purpose and method just for today's lab work.
Lab: Finish Nickel Nanowires during the 40 minute PMMA reaction. Obtain free nanowire XRD and do visible microscopy to prepare labeled SEM sample.
Feb 17 Literature reports 2B
1. Colby: "Lipoprotein-Based Nanoparticles Rescue the Memory Loss of Mice with Alzheimer’s Disease by Accelerating the Clearance of Amyloid-Beta"
2. Gabe: "Nanosizing a Metal–Organic Framework Enzyme Carrier for Accelerating Nerve Agent Hydrolysis"
3. Emmeline: "Multiband Hot Photoluminescence from Nanocavity-Embedded Silicon Nanowire Arrays with Tunable Wavelength"
4. Heather: "Lattice Transparency of Graphene"
5. Jacob: "Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices"
   
Feb 20 Class: Semiconductors, Metal Oxides, and Piezoelectricity
Feb 22 Discussion of Reading/Audio: Self-Cleaning Glass (2009) from The Naked Scientists.
Discussion of Video: Self-Cleaning Buildings (2012) or EU Research Media Center or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Smog-Eating Buildings (2013) or CNN or youtube.
Skim: “ZnO – nanostructures, defects, and devices,” Materials Today, May 2007, pages 40-48 but skip the defect section.
Discussion of Reading: “Progress in nanogenerators for portable electronics,” Materials Today, Dec 2012, pages 532-543.
Discussion of Reading: “Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products,” ES&T, 2012, 46(4), 22422250.
Discussion of Reading: “Activists take aim at nanomaterials in Dunkin Donuts” (2014).
Discussion of Reading: “Dunkin Donuts to remove titanium dioxide from donuts” (2015).
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Synthesis of Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals. The samples you saved in microcentrifuge tubes last week will already be centrifuged for several hours. Carefully remove the liquid and get dry sample.
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Optical Diffraction and SEM Determination of Particle Size. You did the dilution step last week. Set up the constant temperature evaporation to occur over the next week.
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Stokes Law measurements. Data needed every 3 or 4 days. If not going well start a new tube.
Lab: Start Hydrothermal Growth of ZnO Nanorods synthesis (10 minutes). Groups of four should set up the synthesis with two slides and leave in oven until next week. The actions and observations for the synthesis should be in your notebook. Leave the prepared tubes next to the oven for inspection.
Feb 24 Literature reports 2C
1. Garrison: "Controlled Folding of Single Crystal Graphene"
2. Candy: "Smart Contact Lenses with Graphene Coating for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding and Dehydration Protection"
3. Danni: "New Nanoconfined Galvanic Replacement Synthesis of Hollow Sb@C Yolk–Shell Spheres Constituting a Stable Anode for High-Rate Li/Na-Ion Batteries"
4. Yige: "Continuous Draw Spinning of Extra-Long Silver Submicron Fibers with Micrometer Patterning Capability"
Lab notebook due (Nickel Nanowires)
   
Feb 27 Class: Field Effect Transistors
Mar 1 TEST
Lab: Finish ZnO Nanorods measurements. In each group of four, one pair will do XRD and PEC measurements on one slide, and the other pair will do SEM and MB measurements on the other slide. For actions and observations you only need the two measurements you did, but data, graphs and conclusions will require you to exchange data and include the results from all four measurements on your duplicate slides.
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Stokes Law measurements. Data needed every 3 or 4 days.
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Optical Diffraction and SEM Determination of Particle Size. Measure visible spectrum and prepare labeled sample for SEM. Do you need to set up another evaporation for better diffraction?

 Second Half

Mar 3 Literature reports 3A
1. Gabe: "Biodegradable Hybrid Stomatocyte Nanomotors for Drug Delivery"
2. Everett: "Programmed Self-Assembly of Hierarchical Nanostructures through Protein–Nanoparticle Coengineering"
3. Diego: "Size-Controlled Pd Nanoparticle Catalysts Prepared by Galvanic Displacement into a Porous Si-Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Host"
4. Haylee: "High-Mobility GaSb Nanostructures Cointegrated with InAs on Si"
   
Mar 13 Class: Carbon Nanotubes
Lab notebook due (ZnO)
Mar 15 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, PDMS (Chapter 4).
"Replication of Vertical Features Smaller than 2 nm by Soft Lithography," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2003, 125 (49), pp 14986.
Lab: PDMS Soft Lithography. (Due Monday) Start this first so PDMS can cure. Do the optical transform and either the CD or DVD. Be sure to use the side with the features as the mold.
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Synthesis of Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals. Load dry sample in boat, add TEOS, put boat in tube furnace.
Lab: Continue PMMA Nanospheres - Optical Diffraction and SEM Determination of Particle Size. Measure visible spectrum and prepare labeled sample for SEM. Last chance to set up another evaporation for a better diffraction result.
Lab: Continue Stokes Law measurements. Data needed every 3 or 4 days
Mar 17 Literature reports 3B
1. Colby: "Mitochondria-Targeting Ceria Nanoparticles as Antioxidants for Alzheimer’s Disease"
2. Drake: "High-Performance Capacitive Deionization Disinfection of Water with Graphene Oxide-graft-Quaternized Chitosan Nanohybrid Electrode Coating"
3. Emmeline: "Boosting Hole Mobility in Coherently Strained [110]-Oriented Ge–Si Core–Shell Nanowires"
4. Heather: "Sphere-To-Tube Transition toward Nanotube Formation: A Universal Route by Inverse Plateau–Rayleigh Instability"
5. Jacob: "Feeding Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes or Graphene to Silkworms for Reinforced Silk Fibers"

Noon deadline for selecting topics for March 25.
   
Mar 20 Class: Photovoltaics
Lab notebook due (PDMS Soft Lithographyl)
Mar 22 Discussion of Reading: “Power from the sun,” spie oemagazine, April 2003, pages 24-27.
Discussion of Reading: “Plastic Photovoltaic Devices,” Materials Today, Sept 2004, pages 36-40.
Discussion of Reading: “Inorganic Photovoltaic Cells,” Materials Today, November 2007, pages 20-27.
Discussion of Reading: “Third Generation Photovoltaic Cells,” Materials Today, November 2007, pages 42-50.
Discussion of Reading: “Nanoelectrodes: energy conversion and storage,” Materials Today, June 2009, pages 20-27. (FIRST 4 PAGES.)
Discussion of Reading: “Organic photovoltaics,” Materials Today, Dec 2012, pages 554-562.
Discussion of Reading: “Recent advances in dye-sensitized solar cells,” Materials Today, Apr 2015, pages 155-162.
Discussion of Video: Solar Nanopaint, Nova (2007) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: CuInGaSSe (2007), History Channel or youtube.
Discussion of Reading: “Who Pays for Grid Expansions When Homeowners Generate Their Own Electricity?,” or IEEE Spectrum, 23 Jan 2014.
Discussion of Reading: “Perovskite Solar Cell Bests Bugbears, Reaches Record Efficiency,” or IEEE Spectrum, 7 Jan 2015.
Discussion of Reading: “Millions of Chinese-Made Solar Panels,” Pacific Standard, 30 Jun 2015.
Discussion of Reading: “Ultrathin Solar Cells for Lightweight and Flexible Applications,” or IEEE Spectrum, 26 Aug 2015.
Discussion of Reading: “Graphene and Perovskite Lead to Inexpensive and Highly Efficient Solar Cells,” or IEEE Spectrum, 8 Sept 2015.
Discussion of Reading: “Will Nanophotonics Save Solar Power Tech?,” or IEEE Spectrum, 14 Apr 2016.
Discussion of Reading: “Perovskite Solar Cells Grow Better With a Dash of Acrylic Glass,” or IEEE Spectrum, 19 Sept 2016.
Discussion of Reading: “Perovskites Become More Stable,” or IEEE Spectrum, 29 Sept 2016.
Discussion of Reading: “Tesla to launch solar roofs,” C&E News, 7 Nov 2016.
Discussion of Reading: “Tesla Teams With Tiny Hawaiian Utility to Store Solar,” or IEEE Spectrum, 16 Mar 2017.
Mar 24 Advising Practicum (no class)
Mar 25
(Sat)
Nanodays Topics - Rockford, leave Beloit at 9:00 (meet in lab)
Emmeline: Piezoelectricity
Jacob: Ferrofluid
Garrison: Nanofabrics
Diego: Liquid Crystals
Colby: Electroplating
Haylee: Capillary Action
Danni:Heat Transfer
Candy: Invisibility
   
Mar 27 Class: Quantum Dots
Mar 29 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, CdSe (Chapter 5).
Discussion of Reading: “Quantum dot field effect transistors,” Materials Today, Sept 2013, pages 312-325.
Lab: Synthesis of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles

Lab notebook due (Emulsion polymerization and size determination of monodispersed polymethylmethacrylate nanospheres.) Since this experiment took more than one week, there will be more than one purpose and method, actions and observations, and data sections. Use the combined results in your conclusions.
Mar 31 Literature reports 4A
1. Drake
2. Everett
3. Diego
4. Haylee
   
Apr 3 ACS Meeting: No class (Work on quantum dot labs due next week)
Apr 5 ACS Meeting: No class or lab
Apr 7
Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Carbon (Chapter 7).
Discussion of Reading: “Toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotube: How we were wrong?,” Materials Today, January 2010, pages 6-8.
Discussion of Reading: “Carbon nanomaterials for high performance supercapacitors,” Materials Today, July 2013, pages 272-280.
Discussion of Reading: “Ultracentrifugation of single-walled nanotubes,” Materials Today, Dec 2007, 59-60.
Discussion of Reading: “Carbon nanotube-based neat fibers,” Nano Today, Oct 2008, 24-34.
Discussion of Reading: “CNT-Reinforced Ceramics and Metals,” Materials Today, Nov 2004, 44-49.
Discussion of Reading: “Challenges and opportunities for graphene as transparent conductors in optoelectronics,” Nano Today, Dec 2015, 681-700.
Discussion of Video: Polymer Nanotube Composites, Arkema (2009).
Discussion of Video: Blacker than black or NASA (2010) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Carbon Nanotubes or NOVA "Making Stuff: Stronger" (2011) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Spinning Carbon Nanotubes or CSIRO (2005) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Spinning nanotube fibers or Rice University (2014) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Graphene Revolution or GRAFOID (2015) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Victor Badminton Rackets (2014) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: CNT Touch-screen (2011) or youtube.
Discussion of Video: Touch-screens from graphene (2015) or youtube.
Apr 8
(Sat)
Engineering Expo, UW-Madison
Check your list of supplies and signage.
   
Apr 10 Class: Electrons and Magnetism
Lab notebook due (ZnCuInS)
Lab notebook due (CdS)
Apr 12 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Iron Oxide (Chapter 6).
Skim: "Robust Magnetic/Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles Designed for Crude Oil Entrapment and Recovery in Aqueous Environments," ACS Nano, 7(9), 7552-7561 (2013).
Discussion of Audio: Cheap Memory, NPR, January 22, 2012.
Discussion of Video: 3D XPoint Announcement (2015) or Intel.
Discussion of Video: 3D XPoint Memory Technology (2015) or Intel.
Discussion of Reading: Intel Confirms 2016 Arrival Of 3D XPoint (July 2016).
Lab: Titanium Dioxide Raspberry Solar Cells Start this first! (due Monday)
Lab: Synthesis of Colloidal Magnetite Nanoparticles (ferrofluid)
Apr 14 Literature reports 4B
1. Colby
2. Gabe
3. Emmeline
4. Heather
5. Jacob
   
Apr 17 Class: Scanning Probe Microscopies
Lab notebook due (TiO2)
Apr 19 Spring Day (no class or lab)
Apr 21 Literature reports 4C
1. Garrison
2. Candy
3. Danni
   
Apr 24 Class: LEDs and OLEDs
Outreach reflection due
Apr 26 TEST
Lab: Organic Light Emitting Diodes (due Monday)
Lab: Finish Ferrofluid XRD (due Monday)
Apr 28 Meet in 447 for AFM Demonstration
   
May 1 Class: Societal Implications
Lab notebook due (Ferrofluid)
Lab notebook due (oLED)
May 3 Discussion of Reading: Concepts of Nanochemistry, Case Histories (Chapter 8).
Discussion of Reading: Top ten advances in materials science in the last 50 years by Jonathan Wood, Materials Today, 11(1), 2008.
Discussion of Reading: The chips are down for Moore's law, Nature, 530, 144147 (11 February 2016).
Discussion of Reading: Here's Why Nobody's Talking About Nanotech Anymore (pdf) or Time, Oct 2015.
Discussion of Reading: “A tale of opportunities, uncertainties, and risks,” NanoToday, February 2008, pages 56-59.
Discussion of Reading: “Everyday Uses of Nanotechnology” or C&E News, October 10, 2016.
Discussion of Video: Are Engineered Nanoparticles Dangerous? (2016), Andrew Maynard, Risk Innovation Lab, Arizona State University or youtube.
Lab: Cleanup (empty counters and drawers) and build balloon model of CNT or graphene or CNT

Text

Ludovico Cademartiri and Geoffrey Ozin, Concepts of Nanochemistry, Wiley-VCH (2009), ISBN 978-3-527-32597-9

Literature Sources

Choose a recent nano article from Nanoletters or ACS NANO (or from another journal with approval.) Summarize the paper in a short oral report, focusing primarily on a figure or two in the paper. Be sure to check for supplementary information (movies!). By Wednesday email to claim a paper by including a link to the abstract.

Nanoletters (American Chemical Society)
ACS NANO (American Chemical Society)

Nano Research (Springer)
Applied Materials and Interfaces (American Chemical Society)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research (Springer)
Nanoscale Research Letters (Springer)
Materials Today (Elsevier)
Materials News (Materials Research Society)
Nanotechnology news stories (PhysOrg)

Basis of evaluation

• Class participation in discussion of text readings.
• Selection of literature article, identification of main figure, and short presentation on article (every 3 weeks).
• Laboratory notebooks (format, most weeks) require you to plan and record your work and also function as weekly problem sets since they involve measurement, calculation, and discussion. What you record in your laboratory notebook will constitute about half the points for this course.
• Reflection on outreach participation (Saturday, March 25 or April 8).
• Two tests.
Interpret the figures and text from literature reports by expanding on what is being illustrated, explaining procedures or techniques, indicating why it might be important or making connections to our class readings and laboratory work. Tell more than rewriting the caption. Try to use your interpretation to demonstrate additional knowledge beyond what is shown.

SEM images

Nanodays at Discovery Center


Last modified March 28, 2017 by George Lisensky