Data represented in the movies was obtained from the following sources. It represents many years work by an international community of scientists. The original sources should be cited when reusing any data from this collection.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)
Ozone and Water Vapor Group (November, 2003)
The Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer has been used to study total ozone since its development in the 1920's. The observations of total ozone, the total amount of ozone in a column from the surface to the edge of the atmosphere, by this instrument is one of the longest geophysical measurements series in existence. Today, the instrument is an important part of a global effort to understand the role of stratospheric ozone in atmospheric chemistry, biological and ecological effects of solar UV radiation, climate and weather. CMDL maintains 15 stations using the Dobson Ozone spectrophotometer, and is the World Dobson Ozone Calibration Centre under the Global Atmosphere Watch, responsible for the calibration of the 100+ instruments worldwide.
Halley, British Antarctic Survey (December, 2003)
Halley is built on a floating ice shelf - the Brunt Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of the Weddell Sea. The station is sufficiently far south that in summer it bathes in the midnight sun whereas in winter it is in total darkness for some 105 days. At times the auroral zone crosses over Halley giving mignificent auroral displays in winter. Data is obtained using the Dobson ozone spectrophotometer.
http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/met/jds/ozone/data/znoz.dat (daily values)
http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/met/jds/ozone/data/zmean.dat (1957-1972 average)
http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/met/jds/ozone/data/zoz5699.dat (monthly values)
Arosa, Switzerland (September, 2003)
The total ozone series of Arosa is the longest in the world. The measurements began in 1926 by F. W. P. Götz and were continued by G. Perl and then H. U. Dütsch from the Federal Institute of Technology from Zurich (ETH-Z). Since 1988, the Swiss Meteorological Institute is responsible for operational measurements at Arosa. Total ozone is presently measured by four instruments at Arosa to obtain redundancy for reliable trend determination. International comparisons of the instruments are regularly performed to guarantee the quality of the data.
-J. Staehelin, A. Renaud, J. Bader, R. McPeters, P. Viatte, B. Hoegger, V. Bugnion, M. Giroud and H. Schill, Total ozone series at Arosa (Switzerland): Homogenization and data comparison, J. Geophys. Res., 103, D5, 5827-5841, 1998.
NASA Satellite Data: Nimbus 7, Meteor 3, ADEOS, and Earthprobe (December, 2003)
The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) is an instrument built and operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The instrument uses backscattered ultraviolet radiance to infer total column ozone measurements. The data consists of daily gridded averages of total ozone covering the entire globe. The original Nimbus-7 TOMS operated from November 1978 until May 1993. Meteor-3 TOMS was launched in August 1991 and operated until December 1994. After a gap of one and a half years, two new TOMS instruments began operation in 1996: Earth-Probe TOMS was launched on 2nd July 1996 and started to produce data on 25th July. ADEOS TOMS was launched on 17th August 1996 and started producing data on 11th Sept. The satellites were originally placed in different orbits, giving complete global coverage with the ADEOS data, while Earth-Probe had complete coverage at the poles with an increased ability to measure UV-absorbing aerosols in the troposphere. ADEOS failed in June 1997 and Earth-Probe was subsequently placed in a higher orbit to give global coverage.
Movies were derived from 20,000 daily images obtained from the British
Atmospheric Data Centre.
TOMS images for the current day can be accessed at
The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network
R. Prinn, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; D. Cunnold, Georgia Institute of Technology; P. Fraser, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; R. Weiss, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; P. Simmonds, Bristol University; S. O'Doherty, Bristol University; L.P. Steele, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; P. Salameh, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; and R.H.J. Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology
In the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE global network program, continuous high frequency gas chromatographic measurements of two biogenic/anthropogenic gases (methane, CH4; nitrous oxide, N2O; and six anthropogenic gases (chlorofluorocarbons CFCl3, CF2Cl2, and CF2ClCFCl2; methyl chloroform, CH3CCl3; chloroform, CHCl3; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4) are carried out at five globally distributed sites. Additional important species (H2, CO, HFC-134a, HCFC-141b, and HCFC-142b) have been added at select sites in recent years.
The program, which began in 1978, is divided into three parts associated with three changes in instrumentation: the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment (ALE), which used Hewlett Packard HP5840 gas chromatographs; the Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (GAGE), which used HP5880 gas chromatographs; and the present Advanced GAGE (AGAGE). AGAGE uses two types of instruments: a gas chromatograph with multiple detectors (GC-MD), and a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The GC-MD is a new fully automated system produced at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography containing a custom-designed sample module and HP5890 and Carle Instruments gas chromatographic components. The GC-MS is a fully automated system produced at the University of Bristol and comprised of an adsorption-desorption preconcentration module and HP5973 gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric module.
The current station locations are Cape Grim, Tasmania (41° S, 145° E), Cape Matatula, American Samoa (14° S, 171° E), Ragged Point, Barbados (13° N, 59° W), Mace Head, Ireland (53° N, 10° W), and Trinidad Head, California (41° N, 124° W). Stations also previously existed at Cape Meares, Oregon (45° N, 124° W), and Adrigole, Ireland (52° N, 10° W). The current Mace Head station replaced the Adrigole station and the station at Trinidad Head replaced the Cape Meares station.
-Prinn, R.G., R.F. Weiss, P.J. Fraser, P.G. Simmonds, D.M. Cunnold, F.N. Alyea, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, B.R. Miller, J. Huang, R.H.J. Wang, D.E. Hartley, C. Harth, L.P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P.M. Midgely, and A. McCulloch. 2000. A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE. Journal of Geophysical Research 115: 17751-92.
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ale_gage_Agage/AGAGE/gc-md/monthly/ (November 5, 2003)
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ale_gage_Agage/AGAGE/gc-ms/monthly/ (November 5, 2003)
http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ale_gage_Agage/ALE/monthly/ (July 13, 2000)
http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/ale_gage_Agage/GAGE/monthly/ (July 12, 2000)
Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Species
HATS has been analyzing air samples collected in flasks since 1977. This program originally involved the analysis of flask samples from Point Barrow, Alaska (BRW), Niwot Ridge, Colorado (NWR), Mauna Loa, Hawaii (MLO), American Samoa (SMO), and the South Pole (SPO). Electropolished, stainless-steel flasks (300 ml) were collected weekly in pairs, filled to 1.5 atm with a metal bellows pump to minimize contamination of CFC's by plastics or other elastomers, and shipped to Boulder for analysis. All samples were analyzed for N2O, CFC-11, and CFC-12 on a Hewlett Packard 5710A, electron-capture gas chromatograph (GC/ECD) equipped with a Porasil A column. In 1986, when GMCC became the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory within the Environmental Research Laboratories (ERL/CMDL) and HATS was formed, efforts were initiated to increase the number of gases measured from each flask. Larger flasks (850 ml) were obtained and KNF Neuberger diaphragm pumps were sent to the sampling sites so that the flasks could be pressurized to 4 atm absolute pressure. This allowed for the cryotrapping of larger quantities of air for detection of low concentration or weakly responding gases. Measurement of Halons by GC/ECD was begun in 1988 and analysis of flask samples for CFC's, N2O, CH3CCl3, and CCl4 was fully automated by 1992. In late 1991, HATS began analyzing flask samples for hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's), and other atmospheric halogens by gas chromatography with detection by mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Because of the need for additional air for some measurements, HATS has introduced 2.4 l flasks into the network. Also in 1991, two cooperative sites were added to the sampling network -- Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania (CGO) and Alert, Northwest Territories (ALT). Cooperative sampling sites are currently being set up at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts (HFM) and Grifton, North Carolina (ITN). Today, flasks are filled at nine sites, six of which are considered remote locations (ALT, BRW, NWR, MLO, SMO, CGO, SPO) and two of which were established to sample both polluted/source and clean air (ITN, HFM). HATS analyzes pairs of flasks collected weekly from these sites for over 20 gases.
CFC11 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/cfcs/cfc11/flasks/monthly/otto/ (June 3, 2003)
CFC12 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/cfcs/cfc12/flasks/monthly/otto/ (November 8, 2002)
CFC113 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/cfcs/cfc113/flasks/GCMS/113_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
Halon 1211 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/halons/flasks/H1211_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
Halon 1301 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/halons/flasks/H1301 (Station Data) through2002 (030210).txt (February 13, 2003)
Halon 2402 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/halons/flasks/h2402_(GCMS)_1998.dat (January 15, 1998)
HCFC 22 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/hcfcs/hcfc22/flasks/22_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
HCFC 141b ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/hcfcs/hcfc141b/141b_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
HCFC 142b ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/hcfcs/hcfc142b/Flasks/142b_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
HFC 134a ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/hfcs/hfc134a/134A_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
CH3Br ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/methylhalides/ch3br/flasks/CH3Br_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
N2O ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/n2o/insituGCs/CATS/monthly/ (November 21, 2003)
SF6 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/sf6/flasks/ (April 21, 2003)
C2Cl4 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/solvents/C2Cl4/flasks/C2Cl4_MS2001.dat (June 26, 2001)
CCl4 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/solvents/CCl4/insituGCs/CATS/monthly/ (November 21, 2003)
CH2Cl2 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/solvents/CH2Cl2/flasks/CH2Cl2_MS2001.dat (January 8, 2001)
CH3CCl3 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/solvents/CH3CCl3/flasks/GCMS/CH3CCl3_MS2004a.dat (May 5, 2004)
CH3CCl3 ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/hats/solvents/CH3CCl3/insituGCs/CATS/monthly/ (November 21, 2003)
Atmospheric Fluoroform (CHF3, HFC-23) at Cape Grim, Tasmania (December 14, 2000)
Air samples were taken from the archive of Cape Grim, Tasmania (41oS,
145oE) air samples collected from 1978 through 1995. Comparisons
of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CH3CCl3, and CH4
data between archive samples and corresponding
-Oram, D.E., W.T. Sturges, S.A. Penkett, A. McCulloch, and P.J. Fraser. 1998. Growth of fluoroform (CHF3, HFC-23) in the background atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters 25:35-38.
The Global Distribution of Atmospheric Methyl Chloride
M.A. Khalil and R.A. Rasmussen
Methyl chloride is the most abundant chlorine containing gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. Samples were collected in 0.8-L internally electropolished stainless steel canisters at Pt. Barrow, Alaska (71.16ºN, 156.5ºW); Cape Meares, Oregon (45.5ºN, 124ºW); Cape Kumukahi and Mauna Loa, Hawaii (19.3ºN, 154.5ºW); Cape Matatula, Samoa (14.1ºS, 170.6ºW); Cape Grim, Tasmania (42ºS, 145ºE); and Antarctica (South Pole at 90ºS and Palmer Station at 65.46ºS, 64.05ºW). These containers preserve the concentrations of most trace gases for periods much longer than the time between sample collection and analysis. Measurements of methyl chloride and other gases were done using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector.
Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) from Dome Concordia (September 29, 2000)
Air samples were pumped from consolidated deep snow (firn) at Dome Concordia (eastern Antarctica) in December 1998 and January 1999, from the surface to a depth of approximately 100 m. Air samples were analyzed with a gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer, with a detection limit of about 0.001 parts per trillion (ppt).
-Sturges, W.T., T.J. Wallington, M.D. Hurley, K.P. Shine, K. Sihra, A. Engel, D.E. Oram, S.A. Penkett, R. Mulvaney, and C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer 2000. A potent greenhouse gas identified in the atmosphere: SF5CF3. Science 289:611-613.
Release Estimates From Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study, AFEAS (January 2003)
Significant production of CFC-11 and CFC-12 began in the late 1930s for use in refrigeration. Production (and release) increased very slowly until after World War II, when CFCs began to be used as propellants for aerosol sprays. Very quickly, CFC-12 production for use in aerosols exceeded that for use in refrigeration. By the 1950s, the use of CFC-11 as the blowing agent in open-cell (foam rubber) and closed-cell (rigid polyurethane) foams and the use of CFC-12 as the blowing agent in closed-cell foams (mostly Styrofoam®) constituted an additional significant source of release. In 1975, fluorocarbon production and release began to decline after the U.S. ban on CFCs in aerosols. By the early 1980s, however, this decline reversed, partly because of growth in aerosol production in countries not participating in the ban. The use of CFC-11 as the blowing agent in rigid polyurethane foams grew unabatedly throughout the 1970s and 1980s. CFC-12 remained the preferred cooling agent in home refrigerators and, until very recently, in automobile air-conditioners. The recent decline in the release of CFC-11 and CFC-12 from all sources (primarily aerosols) has occurred largely in response to efforts to limit emissions of fully halogenated CFCs as prescribed by the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its subsequent revisions.
-Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS). 2003.
AFEAS, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
-A. McCulloch, P. Ashford, and P.M. Midgley. "Historic Emissions of Fluorotrichloromethane (CFC-11) Based on a Market Survey," Atmos. Environ., 35, 4387-4397, 2001.
-A. McCulloch, P.M. Midgley, and P. Ashford. "Releases of Refrigerant Gases (CFC-12, HCFC-22, and HFC-134a) to the Atmosphere," Atmos. Environ., 37(7), 889-902, 2003.
ER-2 Data (September 1987)
Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) was based in Punta Arenas, Chile during August and September 1987. The data is primarily that collected onboard the NASA ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft, along with ozonesonde data collected at four Antarctic stations: Halley Bay, McMurdo, Palmer Station, and the South Pole. The experiment tested the chemical and dynamical theories of the ozone hole using the aircraft data in theoretical computer models of the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere. The NASA ER-2 is a high altitude research aircraft that sampled air at those altitudes where the ozone hole was at its most intense, with data gathered on the air mass within the confines of the hole itself. The ER-2 collected information on three-dimensional winds, pressure, temperature, temperature profiles +/- 1 km from flight level, chlorine monoxide, bromine monoxide, ozone, nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen, total water, nitrous oxide, whole air sampling, condensation nuclei, aerosol size distribution and composition, and cloud particle images and sizes.
-Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment, 1987. AAOE Project Office, NASA Ames
Research Center, MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035, U.S.A. An overview of
the 1987 AAOE.
-Ardanuy, P., J. Victorine, F. Sechrist, A. Feiner, L. Penn, and the RDS Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment Team, 1988: Final Report on the Near-Real- Time TOMS, Telecommunications, and Meteorological Support for the 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. NASA Contractor Report 4133.
-Krueger, A.J., P. Ardanuy, F. Sechrist, L. Penn, D. Larko, S. Doiron, R. Galimore, 1988: The 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment--The Nimbus-7 TOMS Data Atlas. NASA Reference Publication 1201.