Soil Equilibria: What Happens to Acid Rain?
Module written by G. C. Lisensky, R. Hulet, M. Beug, and S. Anthony
Quicktime Movies and Kplot by G. C. Lisensky
Session 1: How is acid rain formed?
Exploration 1A: How is acid rain formed?
Exploration 1B: How do power plants and automobile emissions affect lakes
Exploration 1C: What are the problems caused by acid rain?
Making the Link: What happens to the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen formed by combustion?
External Links (National Environment Ministries and Agencies and NGOs)
Session 2: What is an acid?
Exploration 2A: What household products behave like acid rain?
Exploration 2B: How do we identify acids from a chemical formula?
Strong and weak acids and bases
Exploration 2C: What is pH?
Making the Link: What is an acid?
Session 3: What is the pH of normal rain?
Exploration 3A: How do systems respond to stress?
Equilibria and Le Châtelier's Principle
Exploration 3B: What is the pH of normal rain?
Exploration 3C: How can we solve any equilibrium problem?
Systematic Method for Equations and Unknowns
Exploration 3D: Is there a faster way to calculate pH?
Logarithmic Concentration Diagrams
Making the Link: How do you predict the pH of a weak acid?
Session 4: How does acid rain interact with soil?
Exploration 4A: How does acid rain interact with soil?
Ion exchange of acidic and basic cations
Building the Phyllosilicates
See the dioctahedral sheets
Virtual Museum of Minerals and Molecules
See the phyllosilicates and tectosilicates in the Silicate Gallery
See Soil Organic Matter for a model with humic acid, soil protein, and soil saccharides
Exploration 4B: How does ion exchange work?
Ion exchange column
Exploration 4C: How does ion-exchange protect soils from acid rain?
Exploration 4D: What happens when the buffer runs out?
Acid base titrations
Exploration 4E: Polyprotic Acids and Bases
Graphs and solutions based on alpha-fractions
Making the Link: Has this area been affected by acid rain?
Session 5: Is this soil nutritious or toxic?
Exploration 5A: Are all soils the same?
CEC and Base Saturation
Exploration 5B: Will aluminum be mobilized?
Exploration 5C: What is my soil's exchangeable basicity?
EDTA Titrations and Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Exploration 5D: What is my soil's exchangeable acidity?
Titration and Complexation
Exploration 5E: Metals and Ligands
Graphs and solutions based on delta-fractions
Making the Link: Is this soil nutritious or toxic?
Session 6: What are the critical problems in your region?
Collecting Soil Samples
Corrections for Ionic Strength