[see obesity symposium July, 2005] EXERCISE NOTES: THINGS WORTH REMEMBERING ABOUT THE PRACTICAL DETAILS AND BENEFITS OF EXERCISE
activity can minimize weight gain, and it needs to be moderate to
vigorous to significantly affect body weight. Improvements in fitness
help reduce weight. Easiest way to decide how much you are exercising
is by measuring your heart rate to see that you get it rapid enough,
but not too strained. The proper level is known as the target
HOW MUCH EXERCISE? HERE'S ONE ANSWER JUST TO MAINTAIN BONE STRENGTH - From Spring/Summer 2005 Oregon State Univ. Linus Pauling Institute Research Report *Preventing Osteoporosis through Diet and Lifestyle, J. Higdou - "physically active people generally have higher bone mass density at all ages than people who are sedentary...get at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily, including weight-bearing exercise, strength-training (at least twice a week), and activities that improve balance to help prevent falls..."
HOW MUCH IS MODERATE EXERCISE? Moderate activity has been defined as 55 - 69 percent of maximum heart rate (MHR). ACSM defines "hard" exercise at 70 - 89 percent MHR, and "very hard" at 90 percent and above, with 100 percent being maximal exertion. To calculate MHR, subtract one's age from 220. To determine the lower end of moderate intensity, multiply MHR by 55 percent or 0.55; multiply MHR by 69 percent or 0.69 to determine the higher end of the moderate intensity range. To calculate your heart rate range, try this heart rate calculator.
FROM LINUS PAULING DIET AND OPTIMAL HEALTH MEETING MAY 18-22,
For those with patience, here are my notes from one of the best
professional meetings for M.D. and Ph.D. professionals involved
in nutrition professionally. They have not been edited, and are
slowly moving on to the appropriate web pages of Nutrition Investigator.
Any mistakes are my own, but I have done my best to capture relevant
exciting information I learned at this conference.
Gary Brooks, exercise and health
People overestimate exercise, underestimate food intake
Get 1 hr exercise/day to maintain weight, 1.5 hr to lose weight
Dr. Powers Comments:
Reperfusion injury is main basis of heart attack damage
3 days of exercise is enough to gain substantial heart benefit,
so heart attack damages only 10% rather than 60%
Mn-SOD is induced by exercise, key protector for heart attacks
Antioxidant diet and exercise protect heart
Exercise and Antioxidant Intake Reduce Damage from heart attack
Damage to Heart of Controls 60%
Damage to Heart of People Who Exercise 10%
Damage to Heart of People On Antioxidant diet 15%
Damage to Heart for People taking antioxidants and getting exercise
Stone age genes require physical activity. Body used to shut
down glucose transport to muscles during food shortage to maintain
to the brain. After 3 days rest, insulin sensitivity drops.
After 10 days rest, it gets much worse, leading to insulin
which is diabetes. Adult-onset diabetes was renamed in 1997
as type-II diabetes because of prevalence among children, who
computers and TV. Metabolic syndrome includes rise in blood
glucose, increased waist, rise in triglycerides, and decrease
of HDL level.
Exercise and aging process are related, but exercise does not
Elderly: This is particularly relevant
to elderly, who can regain fitness even when well over 70, and can
regain good balance by exercising appropriately to build balance
muscles and reflexes. Studies indicate that even people in their
80s can become physically fit if they make a conscientious effort
to do so. The target heart rate is graduated
and applies at all ages.
Benefits: from AGE meeting, June, 2004: resistence training is better than endurance training. Burning 500 Cal/week reduces risk of dying by 22% compared to sedentary people. Burning 3000 Cal/week reduces risk 54%. 30 minutes bike riding 5x per week burns 3000 Cal. Duration is more important than intensity.
How much do I need to get?: For people
who lost 30 kg and kept it off for 6 years, they needed to increase their physical
activity to the equivalent of walking vigorously at least 3.5 miles every
day of the week. YIKES. It sound much easier to avoid gaining the
weight in the first place. For women, 280 min/wk of at least moderate
physical activity for 18 months reduced their weight an average
of 30 lbs. Osteoporosis is on the rise - by 2020, half of Americans
over 50 will be at risk for osteoporosis. A report by the
Surgeon General suggests simple steps like getting 30 min of exercise
per day will maintain bone health. -Bone Health and Osteoporosis:
A Report of the Surgeon General; October, 2004
MET: One consumes 3.5ml of
oxygen uptake per kg of body weight per minute when sitting quietly.
This is defined as one MET. Vigorous activities like tennis, swimming,
running, and rowing consume 6 METs or more.
REE: Resting energy expenditure,
which is how many calories you burn just being alive, is 75% of the calories
used by the average individual. So increasing your REE is the easiest
way to burn calories. It may be hypothesized that an increase in
fat-free body mass, that is more muscles, will increase REE.
During weight loss through dieting, REE tends to decrease, that
is your body tends to conserve calories by using less energy when
you are dieting. Therefore, one must increase REE by exercising
to build muscles. Neither resistence nor aerobic forms of exercise
prevent the decrease in REE during dieting, so exercise needs to
be maintained well beyond the weight loss period.
TIMES OF WEIGHT GAIN IN YOUR LIFE: You tend to be most suseptible
to weight gain during life events, e.g. having a baby, graduating
from college, entering college, getting married. These times of
stress are particularly likely to reset your lifestyle, including
eating and exercise levels and body-weight set point. So be conscious
of changes you make. Alternative approaches to structured exercise
may be helpful. Park at the far end of the parking lot, take the
stairs, walk briskly whenever you go ANYWHERE.
To Changing Your Behavior