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NOTES ADDED TO NUTRITION INVESTIGATOR WEBSITE SUMMER, 2009
This information was obtained from various meetings, readings, and reader emails investigated during the past 12 months. In this email are keywords. The longer explanations are on this page. Here you can also find links to the longer pages to which they have been added.
Diet Guidance "Cutting back on all types of fat and eating extra carbohydrate will do little to protect against heart disease and will ultimately harm some people. Instead, replacing saturated fats [red meat] with unsaturated fats
DIET AND CANCER
MULTIVITAMINS - [written by Dr. Bruce Ames] Ten years ago I proposed that the risk of cancer was increased by chronic, suboptimal consumption of micronutrients (approximately 40 essentail minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids) and that this should be easily remediable. …In 2006, I proposed the "triage theory", which provides a unifying rationale for expanding my original proposal t include a causal link between micronutrient deficiencies and chronic disease. [I want to provide justification for] implementation of inexpensive public health programs that can significantly reduce chronic disease incidence and increase life span. Triage theory posits that when supply of a micronutrient is inadequate, nature selects for a rebalancing of metabolism….that ensures survival of the organism at the expense of less critical metabolism… High consumption of calorie-rich, micronutrient-poor unbalanced diets exacerbates the problem…There is little societal concern because no overt patho9logies have been associated with marginal to modertate levels of deficiency. The triage theory predicts that the pathology is insidious…[Three measurable consequences are likely to be] increased DNA damage (future cancer), immune dysfunction (future severe infection…) and mitochondrial decay (future cognitive dysfunction and accelerated brain aging). (Link: Multivitamins: Source: Bruce Ames "Foreward: Prevention of Cancer, and the Other Degenerative Diseases of Aging, Through Nutrition"; added 6/2009)
MULTIVITAMINS: The Archives of Internal Medicine recently stated multivitamin use had no benefit. "I believe nothing could be further from the truth." The study was an observational study, not a randomized controlled trial. Note that 90% of the US does not meet the recommended dietary intake for vitamin E, 40% for vitamin A, 30% for vitamin C, and 50% for magnesium. And most are deficient in vitamin D. The study author wrote :Multivitamins may still be useful as a form of [health] insurance for people with poor eating habits." And multivitamin formulations vary considerably. (Link: Multivitamins: Source: Linus Pauling Institute Research Newsletter Spring/Summer 2009; added 6/2009)
VITAMIN C: Vitamin C is found not only in plasma but in high millimolar concentrations in cells and tissues. It is not a pro-oxidant at any dose taken orally. People with high cholesterol have impaired vascular function, hypertension, and vitamin C can provide significant benefit - doses of 500 mg twice a day lowers blood pressure by 10 points in mild hypertension. Tea helps too, but probably by a different mechanism. VC supplement use is associated with lower heart disease and cancer risk, and may reduce inflammation and CRP levels. Balz Frei, head of LPI, believes the RDA and UL are too low. Flavanoids from fruits and vegetables are fine, but not nearly as effective as vitamin C at trapping free radicals. On the JAMA studies on hazards of vitamins C and E, LPI states unequivocally that those reports were interpreted inaccurately by the media. In fact, many studies have "reported benefits for supplemental vitamins C and E in the prevention and treatment of heart disease and cancer." (Link: Vitamin C: Vitamin E; Source: Linus Pauling Institute Research Newsletter Spring/Summer 2009; added 6/2009)
Vitamins D and K help cardiac rhythm. Vitamin K activates the protein osteocalcin, which strengthens bone mass, but decalcifies soft tissues like arterial walls reducing blood pressure. (link: vitamin D and vitamin K; blood pressure; source: LPI meeting 2009; added 6/2009)
A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin K than did cognitively intact control subjects. (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Dec;108(12):2095-9). (Link: vitamin K and Alzheimers; Source: Alzheimers newsletter:
Higher fish consumption is associated with better cognitive function in later life. (J Nutr Health Aging. 2009;13(3):198-202) (Link: fish and Alzheimers; Source: Alzheimers newsletter:
Stroke is a well-known risk factor for vascular dementia. Systolic blood pressure >140 was most strongly associated with prevalent memory impairment Other associated risk factors included non-white race, male gender, age, education <or=12 years, and history of any alcohol use. Among transient ischemic attacks symptoms, self-reported weakness in the face, arm, or leg was significantly associated with memory impairment. (Link: blood pressure and Alzheimers; Source: Alzheimers newsletter:
Coffee drinking at midlife is associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD later in life. After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1409 individuals (71%) aged 65 to 79 completed the re-examination in 1998. A total of 61 cases were identified as demented (48 with AD). Coffee drinkers at midlife had lower risk of dementia and AD later in life compared with those drinking no or only a little coffee. The lowest risk (65% decreased) was found in people who drank 3-5 cups per day. (J Alzheimers Dis. 2009 Jan;16(1):85-91)
Fructose increases cholesterol levels, glucose decreases them. (link: soda pop; source: LPI meeting 2009; added 6/2009)
LIPOIC ACID: Lipoic acid may positively affect the hippocampus, associated with memory. In mice, it reduces weight, improves muscle mass, and lowers triglycerides. They are doing a clinical trial where people take 600 mg a day, in the morning on an empty stomach. So people could experience dizziness initially. (Link: Lipoic acid: Source: Linus Pauling Institute Research Newsletter Spring/Summer 2009; added 6/2009)
Arginine is a nitric oxide donor and vasodilator. Take 1-3 g/day, based on LPI meeting. In a few people, arginine causes constipation. Arginine also increases herpes virus cold sores. In that case, co-administer lysine which decreases cold sores. (link: arginine; source: LPI meeting 2009; added 6/2009)
1. EFFICACY: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm
2. DOSAGE: http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/melatonin-1017.html
CALORIC RESTRICTION (CR) HELPS MEMORY - If you get the Juvenon newsletter issued by Benjamin Treadwell (2009), you would have read of a caloric restriction study of 50 people mean age 60.5 years. Those on CR, a 30% decrease in calories for 3 months, had measurable increases in memory, and decreases in insulin and CRP (inflammation) levels. The nutrient resveratrol, specifically the active trans-resveratrol form, seems to have that potential. Animal studies have produced encouraging results. Whether these results will translate to humans remains to be determined. Read the full article here.