How Can We Reduce Air Pollution from Automobiles?
Module written by Howard Drossman, Wayne Tikkanen, and Sandra Laursen
Session 1: How Does an Automobile Pollute?
Analyzing Issues of Automobile Fuels and Air Pollution
Exploration 1A: What is Gasoline?
Properties of Automobile Fuels
Exploration 1B: How Does Gasoline Affect Air Quality?
Air Pollutants and Regulations
Exploration 1C: What Is Oxygenated Gasoline?
Mass Percentage Requirements
Exploration 1D: Who Is For and Against Oxygenates in Gasoline?
Session 2: How Does the Fuel-Air Mixture Affect Air Pollution?
Stoichiometry and Gas Laws
Figure 2-1. Vehicle Inspection Report
Exploration 2A: What is the Ideal Fuel-Air Mixture?
Stoichiometry of Fuel-Air Reactions
Exploration 2B: What Happens When Fuel and Air are Not Mixed in Stoichiometric
Exploration 2C: How Do Changes in the Fuel-Air Mixture Affect Air Pollution?
Constructing a Stoichiometric Model
Session 3: How Does Combustion Move a Car?
Thermodynamics of Auto Engines
Exploration 3A: How Much Heat is Released upon Fuel Combustion?
Exploration 3B: How Do Chemical Bond Energies Affect the Heat Obtained
from Automobile Fuels?
Exploration 3C: How Much Heat is Produced From Combustion of Automobile
Hess' Law and Standard Enthalpies
The National Institute of Standards and Technology maintains an excellent database of chemical data, including thermochemical data for many compounds and reactions. Follow the screen instructions at http://webbook.nist.gov to search for the desired data.
Exploration 3D: How Does an Automobile Engine Convert Heat to Work?
Heat, Work, and the First Law
Exploration 3E: How Efficient is an Automobile Engine?
Thermodynamic Efficiency and Heat Capacity
Session 4: How Does Engine Temperature Affect Air Pollution?
Exploration 4A: How Much NO2 is in the Air I'm Breathing?
Laboratory Analysis of NO2
Exploration 4B: Can We Model the Amounts of CO and NOx Produced
in Auto Engines?
Exploration 4C: Are NOx and CO Formed in the Air We Breathe?
Entropy and Gibbs Free Energy
Exploration 4D: How Does a Hot Engine Affect CO and NOx Production?
Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium
Exploration 4E: How Do Pressure and Concentration Affect CO Removal?
Le Chatelier's Principle
Exploration 4F: What is the NOx Concentration in an Engine?
Exploration 4G: Are Reactions in Real Engines in Equilibrium?
Free Energy and the Reaction Quotient
Session 5: How Does Fuel Volatility Affect Air Pollution?
Phase Transitions of Fuel Compounds
Exploration 5A: How Well Does Fuel Mix with Water?
Intermolecular Forces and Mixing
Exploration 5B: What Determines Fuel Volatility?
Vapor Pressure and Phase Changes
Session 6: Should We Run Our Cars on Oxygenated Gasoline?
Copyright © 2004 by the trustees of Beloit College and the Regents of the University of California. This Module has been developed under the direction of the ChemLinks Coalition, headed by Beloit College, and the ModularChem Consortium, headed by the University of California at Berkeley. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation grants No. DUE-9455918 and DUE-9455924. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation, Beloit College, or the Regents of the University of California.
Published through exclusive license with W. W. Norton.
How Can We Reduce Air Pollution from Automobiles? ISBN 0-393-92438-6
Air Pollution from Automobiles | ChemConnections